Water levels and ENSO index during 2008 and 2011 inundation events

Figure3-13_resized

Figure 3-13 In mid-December 2008, the Marshall Islands experienced high seasonal spring (king) tides causing water levels to rise above the Mean Higher High Water (MHHW, green) level. Around this time (a) multi-day periods with enhanced wave activity and related swash motions at the shoreline occurred ~ Dec 8 and 15 seen as high variability within each hourly water-level measurement (1-std WL, Sweet et al., 2011). In (b), the ENSO Niño Region 3.4 anomaly (red/blue) shows elevated sea levels during cool phase/La Niña (blue) or warm phase/El Niño (red), which have steadily increased since about 1990. 0.1 m = 0.33 ft. (Data from NOAA Tide Station at Kwajalein, Marshall Islands.)

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