Factors affecting extreme water levels in the Pacific Islands


Figure 3-1  Factors affecting extreme water levels in the Pacific Islands. In the Pacific Islands, extreme water levels primarily result from a combination of global and regional changes in mean sea level due to the addition of mass and density changes driven by processes operating over centuries to millennia; ENSO and other modes of natural variability that control regional to local mean sea level over decades to months; tropical and extra-tropical storms, and swell from distant storms that manifests as events lasting hours to seconds; unusually high tides; and regional to local vertical land motion. (Figure courtesy of John Marra.)